Emotions & Personality

These are not the materials to study from, or the ready texts to read and understand. These are not promoting learning concepts by heart. Furthermore, these are not for the purpose of sharing ideas of others but rather aim uncovering your thoughts, attitudes and interpretation of the concepts in the most relevant and most efficient ways for you. Your turn!..

  1. Differentiate emotions from moods

2. Describe some of the reasons for changes in Moods and Emotions — Personality, Time (day of week, or time of day), weather, stress, social activities, sleep, exercise, age, sex – various sources but MOST importantly – specific events around us that affect us personally – hence very subjective and unpredictable. Some general statistics on the Time (treat with caution though, as it is only a tiny, small parameter in many other potential sources of emotional ups or downs – which are all quite specific to individual.

3. Emotional Dissonance and Deep Acting — Emotions felt and Emotions displayed aren’t always the same. For a lot of jobs a worker is required to suppress personal emotions and tune to whatever is prescribed by job role. Being cheerful, smiling, happy, etc – while you may not feel so – creates emotional dissonance. Furthermore – how are we changing and tuning our emotions – on Surface – just pretending and displaying it (fake smile, etc) or Deeper? While it is hard to make oneself Deep Act and change the emotions, – it is the most efficient and productive both for the work requirement and also for the psychological comfort of the worker. Surface acting is just adding to more emotional dissonance.  

4. Emotional Intelligence

5. Emotional Labor  — an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.

6. Emotional Contagion  —  Matching effect between employee and customer emotions.

7. Schadenfreude —  Taking delight in the misery of others

8. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – Personality Types – Personality Traits

  • Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I). Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.
  • Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N). Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”
  • Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F). Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.
  • Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P). Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.

9. The Big Five Personality Model – Personality Types – Personality Traits

  • Extraversion. The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.
  • Agreeableness. The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
  • Conscientiousness. The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.
  • Emotional stability. The emotional stability dimension—often labeled by its converse, neuroticism—taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.
  • Openness to experience. The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar

10. Machiavellian -s -ism — “I’m prepared to do whatever I have to do to get ahead” – no apologies for the aggressive tactics – if it works, use it.

11. Narcis -s -ism — Hans likes to be the center of attention. He looks at himself in the mirror a lot, has extravagant dreams, and considers himself a person of many talents. Hans is a narcissist. In psychology, narcissism describes a person who has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant.

12. Proactive Personality — Identify Opportunities, Take Action, Persevere Until Meaningful Change Occurs.

13. Risk Taking —  High risk takers make decisions faster – taking higher risk.

14. Personal Traits and Values —  Personality traits are the enduring characteristics that describe a person’s behavior. Value – are often very specific and describe belief systems rather than behavioral tendencies

15. Values — All of us have a hierarchy of values that forms our value system

16. Terminal vs Instrumental Values — One set, called terminal values , refers to desirable end-states. These are the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. The other set, called instrumental values , refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. 

17. Various Generations 

  • Boomers, Baby Boomers (Born 1945-1965; entered workforce 1965-1985)
  • X-erts, Generation X-ers  (Born 1965-1980; entered workforce 1985-2000)
  • Millenials, Netters, Nexters, Generation Y-ers (Born since 1980; entered workforce – 2000)

18. Personality-Job Fit Theory by John Holland  – A theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.

19. Person-Organization Fit Theory  – essentially argues that people are attracted to and selected by organizations that match their values, and they leave organizations that are not compatible with their personalities.

20. Hofstede’s Model

  • Individualism / Collectivism
  • High Power Distance / Low Power Distance
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Masculinity / Femininity
  • Long Term Orientation / Short Term Orientation
  • Indulgence / Restraint

Cases: GGG – Legal Consulting & Advocates

Situation 1

Head of Corporate Sales who has been just recently hired at the company is now asking for the meeting with Head of HR to complain about his shock towards the attitude that his department employees have regarding their duties – basic things like coming on time, being focused on work, stay till the relevant hours, be loyal to the company, etc – all of those are the issues at the moment.

Situation 2

The CEO has an idea to setup an offshore branch of the company in the part of the world which is 10,000 km away.  He is confident that one or two of his deputies and existing staff can lead this project and start building an offshore branch via traveling and relevant setup information gathering.

Situation 3

Company employees filed a petition to the Board to allow again to have social networking and video sites on company network. No one was able to use any FB, or Youtube for past 3 months already and the employees argue that this has very negatively influenced their moods.

Situation 4

Head of Administrative Support was trying to persuade finance director to allocate some money to buy cookies to serve on the meeting tables together with tea and coffee as all the guests were offered. He was trying to find good arguments.

Situation 5

Head of Marketing is complaining about the timing of the brainstorming session that Board of Directors set for Thursday 6pm. he’s arguing this is the least preferable time for Brainstorming.

Situation 6

Head of Accounting, Mrs. Laquifa was furious to discover she has to make a new test now – called EE or EI or smth like that – she couldn’t remember. She worked 33 years with the company and she said never in her practice such a stupid test was required to be written by employees. She said there is not a single number in the test – why would that be relevant at all to the Accounting? What she was referring to is the new management initiative to do Emotional Intelligence Tests.

Situation 7

Agreeable people tend to be kinder and more accommodating in social situations, which you might think could add to their success in life but what is the price for being too nice?

Situation 8

Audit and Supervision department is requesting a mandate to start monitoring employee Facebook and other social network presence in order to learn more about them and be aware of their emotional states and if required ring the bell to the relevant supervisor.