Negotiation & Persuasion

  1. Negotiation Tactics
    • Forbearance – withholding reaction deliberately even when you can and want to answer
    • Silence – stop talking and resuming talking – master using pauses
    • Surprise – try being less predictable
    • Fait Accompli – taking a chance -“fact accomplished”
    • Apparent Withdrawal – forbearance/deception
    • Reversal – opposing to popular trend/goal
    • Probing/Testing – try various strategies to identify/understand
    • Setting Limits – limiting time/venue/conditions
    • Feinting – diversion: look to the right, go to the left
    • Association – power of an example/reference
    • Disassociation – trying to belittle, discourage, etc
    • Crossroads – options/paths on table to continue road
    • Blanket – hit the other party with as many issues as possible
    • Randomizing – picking a free sample as if it represents all
    • Bracketing – firing to find out the area (guns)
    • Salami – little by little, one slice at a time
    • Quick Close – meeting halfway in stalemate or time
    • constraint
    • Agent of Limited Authority – gain time, avoid push
  1. ZOPA – Zone of Possible Agreement – essentially a range you can reasonably believe your agreement will fall. For example, if you are selling your car and you are researching online the current offers on the websites on the similar model/year/condition cars, you may discover the offers range from $8,000 to $10,000. That range is your ZOPA then – this is where you will try to place your deal, of course you would prefer more, but this range would be something you target anyways.
  2. BATNA – Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement – or simply what is your next best option if do not get the current negotiated deal.
  3. Instrumental vs Affective Satisfaction – always try to understand what is the rational cause and what is the emotional (affective) cause for the other side to feel one way or another. You may receive exactly what you want from the deal but feel emotional dissatisfied, or sometimes vice versa, so both instrumental and affective satisfaction is important to consider.
  4. Ancient Science of Persuasion in 6 Principles
    1. Principle of Liking – People like those who like them. Uncover real similarities and offer genuine praise.
    2. Principle of Reciprocity – People repay in kind. When giving something, you are increasing the probability of you getting back something back from the others too.
    3. Principle of Social Proof – People follow the lead of similar others.
    4. Principle of Consistency – People align with their clear commitments; make their commitment active and public.
    5. Principle of Authority – People listen to experts – expose your expertise, don’t assume it is self-evident.
    6. Principle of Scarcity – People want more of what is limited.
  5. Channels of Persuasion
  1. Interest Based Persuasion – Trade Interests and Needs
  2. Authority Based Persuasion – Using Rules to Get Obedience
  3. Politics – Acting in Concert
  4. Rationality – Offering Reasons and Evidence
  5. Inspiration and Emotion – Visionary Persuasion
  6. Relationship – Rapport and Relationship

7. Overcoming Deadlock in Negotiation

  • Take a Break
  • Recap What Has Occurred
  • Decide What Will be Lost
  • Express How You Feel
  • Change the Subject
  • Attempt to Secure an Agreement-in-Principle
  • Try Bridge-Issue Agreements
  • Discuss What Alternatives Remain
  • Make an Important Disclosure
  • Ask a Hypothetical Question
  • Try Using a Quick Close
  • Diagram Differences
  • Give Something to Get Something
  • Bring Up Future Needs
  • Discuss Good Association
  • Change Locations
  • Call it Quits (least recommended always)
  • Try Using a Quick Close
  • Diagram Differences
  • Give Something to Get SomethingBring Up Future Needs
  • Discuss Good Association
  • Change Locations
  • Call it Quits (least recommended always)
  1. What if you are being Persuaded? – Art of Neutral NO – Choose ONE main reason and stick to it – instead of several smaller/weaker reasons, always have ONE that’s the one you are using.
  1. Not Harsh
  2. Not Aggressive
  3. Not Apologetic
  4. Not Reluctant
  5. Not Heavily Buffered
  6. Not Overly Nice
  1. What NOT to do when refusing
  1. Don’t give too much to read by mixing messages and adding emotions
  2. Don’t weaken your no with weak reasons upfront
  3. Don’t give misguided empathy
  4. Don’t sound like at battlefront
  5. Don’t give false hope
  6. Don’t avoid staying with No – practice it more

Task to Prepare

There is no task to prepare in advance for this session. You are welcome to familiarize yourself with the concepts covered here in this reading and we will be discussion and explaining some of this very interesting Negotiation & Persuasion techniques.