Personality Considerations

  1. Differentiate emotions from moods

2. Describe some of the reasons for changes in Moods and Emotions — Personality, Time (day of week, or time of day), weather, stress, social activities, sleep, exercise, age, sex – various sources but MOST importantly – specific events around us that affect us personally – hence very subjective and unpredictable. Some general statistics on the Time (treat with caution though, as it is only a tiny, small parameter in many other potential sources of emotional ups or downs – which are all quite specific to individual.

3. Emotional Dissonance and Deep Acting — Emotions felt and Emotions displayed aren’t always the same. For a lot of jobs a worker is required to suppress personal emotions and tune to whatever is prescribed by job role. Being cheerful, smiling, happy, etc – while you may not feel so – creates emotional dissonance. Furthermore – how are we changing and tuning our emotions – on Surface – just pretending and displaying it (fake smile, etc) or Deeper? While it is hard to make oneself Deep Act and change the emotions, – it is the most efficient and productive both for the work requirement and also for the psychological comfort of the worker. Surface acting is just adding to more emotional dissonance.  

4. Emotional Intelligence

5. Emotional Labor  — an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.

6. Emotional Contagion  —  Matching effect between employee and customer emotions.

7. Schadenfreude —  Taking delight in the misery of others

8. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – Personality Types – Personality Traits

  • Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I). Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.
  • Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N). Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”
  • Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F). Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.
  • Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P). Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.

9. The Big Five Personality Model – Personality Types – Personality Traits

  • Extraversion. The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.
  • Agreeableness. The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
  • Conscientiousness. The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.
  • Emotional stability. The emotional stability dimension—often labeled by its converse, neuroticism—taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.
  • Openness to experience. The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar

10. Machiavellian -s -ism — “I’m prepared to do whatever I have to do to get ahead” – no apologies for the aggressive tactics – if it works, use it.

11. Narcis -s -ism — Hans likes to be the center of attention. He looks at himself in the mirror a lot, has extravagant dreams, and considers himself a person of many talents. Hans is a narcissist. In psychology, narcissism describes a person who has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant.

12. Proactive Personality — Identify Opportunities, Take Action, Persevere Until Meaningful Change Occurs.

13. Risk Taking —  High risk takers make decisions faster – taking higher risk.

14. Personal Traits and Values —  Personality traits are the enduring characteristics that describe a person’s behavior. Value – are often very specific and describe belief systems rather than behavioral tendencies

15. Values — All of us have a hierarchy of values that forms our value system

16. Terminal vs Instrumental Values — One set, called terminal values , refers to desirable end-states. These are the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. The other set, called instrumental values , refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. 

17. Various Generations 

  • Boomers, Baby Boomers (Born 1945-1965; entered workforce 1965-1985)
  • X-erts, Generation X-ers  (Born 1965-1980; entered workforce 1985-2000)
  • Millenials, Netters, Nexters, Generation Y-ers (Born since 1980; entered workforce – 2000)

18. Psychological Types by Dominance and Aggression 

Think of all the people falling into one of the four boxes depending on their level of Aggression and their level of Dominance. Always think of Friendly/Positiveness as opposite to Aggression for this model. And also think of Agreeableness as opposite to Dominance. This way we can create some guidelines for each type as follows:

  1. High Dominance & High Aggression – this type is easy to recognize as they are really noisy. They talk loud and they talk a lot. They are very demanding. Acts fast and with determination. It’s a difficult type to deal with in the beginning. Most probably they may have distrust towards a doctor or a healthcare institution. So, how to approach them?
    • Try to play their game, be bold and brave
    • Establish firm eye contact
    • Listen with respect but passively – do not show that you agree with them by any non-verbal or verbal sign while he/she challenges you
    • Answer them directly – this type likes direct approach, without too much “blah-blah”
    • This type of patient will only start trusting you if they are confident that you are equal to them. They seek strong counterparts. Be polite but firm and assertive. So that they consider you strong enough to be on their level to trust you.
  2. Low Dominance & High Aggression – this type is cold, they don’t like communication with people they just met. They don’t show emotions. They are very reserved. Most probably they will be answering to your questions with phrases like: Maybe… Perhaps… Let’s assume that… So, how to approach them?
    • Don’t try to be dominant with them
    • Be on their level
    • Try to gain trust step by step
    • Try to gain deeper levels of rapport slowly
    • Ask questions with caution, – don’t push them to answer many questions
    • Key to such patients is patience – they will grow into trusting you if you will be consistent and allow time with them
  3. Low Dominance & Low Aggression – this types are usually extroverts with friendly attitude. They like to talk. They are not leaders usually. They like to be treated by those who they like personally. They like to be asked questions. And they are very easy to persuade – they have high level of Agreeableness. But they always check with others too. And they listen to too many opinions. They are very susceptible to falling under various influences. So, how to deal with them?
    • They love people and they trust people easily
    • Be warm and friendly
    • Don’t try to be too dominant with them though
    • Share the experience and try to establish the rapport
    • Always try to take the conversation to the specifics, – give them the constraints that will help them to stick to the commitments.
  4. High Dominance & Low Aggression – This type is usually characterized as free, brave, positive, thinker – they love expressing their opinions and ideas. They are demanding from doctor to be argumentative and they always ask for reference, proof, arguments that support specific course of treatment. If they are provided with rational arguments they are persuaded and become loyal. Due to the fact that they like to talk and express opinions they may ask you to meet and discuss on some topics that you may think are not relevant or not important – but for this personality it is very important to have the chance to express so do give them this opportunity – albeit that could mean more time needed with such patients. So, the approaches:
    • They really want to feel respected and feel empathy from your side
    • Be dominant as they are but just one step below to show respect
    • Always use rational arguments – they are listening and understanding well
    • Always express appreciation towards the ideas they express – this doesn’t mean you have to agree with them, but mentioning that you understand their point and then using arguments could be a good strategy
    • Be patient to listen to them even when they are proposing discussion on some topics that you think are not relevant or important.

Task to Prepare

There is not task to do for this module – just read the materials above and be ready to discuss in class and perhaps think of your examples or suggestions on the topics covered. Feel free to prepare questions and looking forward to an interesting discussion!