Introductions Matter

Introductions are only 10–15 percent of one’s speech, so speakers need to make sure they think through the entire introduction to ensure that they will capture an audience 

  • Gain Audience Attention and Interest
  • State the Purpose of Your Speech
  • Establish Credibility
  • Provide Reasons to Listen
  • Preview Main Ideas

Conclusions Matter 

They signal the end and aid audience to memorise your speech

  • Restatement of Thesis
  • Review of Main Points
  • Concluding Device – Final Thought
  • Conclude with a Challenge
  • Conclude with a Quotation
  • Conclude with a Summary
  • Conclude by Visualising the Future
  • Conclude with an Appeal to Action
  • Conclude by Inspiration
  • Conclude with Advice
  • Conclude with Proposing a Solution
  • Conclude with a Question
  • Conclude with a Reference to Audience

Oral Language vs. Writing

  1. Oral language has a smaller variety of words.
  2. Oral language has words with fewer syllables.
  3. Oral language has shorter sentences.
  4. Oral language has more self-reference words (I, me, mine).
  5. Oral language has fewer quantifying terms or precise numerical words.
  6. Oral language has more pseudo-quantifying terms (many, few, some).
  7. Oral language has more extreme and superlative words (none, all, every, always, never).
  8. Oral language has more qualifying statements (clauses beginning with unless and except).
  9. Oral language has more repetition of words and syllables.
  10. 10.Oral language uses more contractions.
  11. 11.Oral language has more interjections (“Wow!,” “Really?,” “No!,” “You’re kidding!”).
  12. 12.Oral language has more colloquial and nonstandard words.

 Understanding Key Terms

  • Interactional model vs. Transactional model of public speaking
  • Dialogic model of public speaking and its dimensions
  • Noise and Message
  • Types of Noise
  • Ethics Pyramid
  • Key components of message integrity as per the ethics code 
  • Public speaking ethics checklist
  • Communication apprehension
  • Communication apprehension physiology and myths
  • Sources and stages of communication apprehension
  • Communication apprehension reduction guide
  • Coping with unexpected content issues, technical difficulties and external distractions
  • Hearing vs. Listening
  • Listening Styles
  • Attention Span
  • Receiver Bias
  • Listening Apprehension
  • Stages of Listening
  • Formative vs. summative feedback
  • Critical Listening
  • Audience Analysis
  • Narrowing a topic
  • Argumentation Support
  • Good Speech: Logos, Ethos, Pathos
  • Introduction steps
  • Thesis Checklist
  • Speech organisation and transitions
  • Speech Delivery Universe

Case Sample Assignment

Businessmen do not only talk about their business! They do talk about various other matters and at this stage we will NOT need any business discussion. What you will be required is to select two speakers, two representative from your team who will prepare individual Speeches of 3-5 minutes on ANY topic. 

Yes… Any topic – you choose, you decide, you speak.

Be sure it is NOT less than 3 minutes and NOT more than 5 minutes. 

You are NOT allowed to use any visual or any slide or any other material – just you, – and your speech! 

So each team will have 2 speakers, and 2 individual topics. The team will be then evaluated based on the performance of the speakers. However…

This is an unusual evaluation! It is not only the instructor who will be evaluating your speech – in this case ALL THE AUDIENCE will vote and select the best speakers. So it is very important to select the topic well. 

Each speaker is to think and select the topic that will be interesting for everyone in the audience and then make sure the speech is delivered in a manner that makes everyone vote for them!..

Be careful, the audience will not be able to give high evaluations for everyone. They will be limited to choose who they like most, who – less, who least, and so on.

Let’s slip away from business discussions for a while and let’s listed to various interesting speech on any interesting topic that you choose!