Organizing Principles

  1. Time / Chronological – shows a series of events or steps in a process
  2. Comparison – similarities and/or differences between points or concepts
  3. Contrast – highlights the differences between items and concepts. 
  4. Cause and Effect – establishes a relationship between two events or situations, making the connection clear.
  5. Problem and Solution – state the problem and detail how  it was solved. This approach is effective for persuasive speeches.
  6. Classification / Categories – establishes categories 
  7. Biographical – examining specific people as they relate to the central topic 
  8. Space / Spatial – parts of something and how they fit to  form the whole 
  9. Ascending / Descending – involves focusing on quantity and quality. 
  10. Psychological – focusing on the audience inherent needs and wants 
  11. Elimination – outlining all the possibilities
  12. Example – vivid, specific examples 
  13. Process and Procedure – steps or phases that lead to a complete end goal 
  14. Point Pattern – presentation of diverse assertions to be aligned in a cohesive argument with clear support  
  15. Definition – clear introduction of terms and concepts while reducing the likelihood of misinterpretation 
  16. Testimonial – document around a testimony, or first person account of an experience 
  17. Ceremonial – Thanking, The importance of the event; The relationship of event to audience

Classical Rhetorical Strategy 

  1. Exordium – prepares 
  2. Narration – background / context
  3. Proposition – your claim
  4. Confirmation – evidence 
  5. Refutation – refutes counterarguments
  6. Peroration – your conclusion

GASCAP/T Argumentation Strategy

Argument by Generalisation, Analogy, Sign, Consequence, Authority, Principle, Testimony.Understanding Key Terms

  • Organising Principles
  • Formatting
  • Styling
  • Classical Rhetorical Strategy
  • GASCAP/T Argumentation Strategy
  • Fallacies
  • Outlines
  • Paragraphs
  • Effective Sentences
  • Bureaucratic vs. Standard Phrases
  • Transitions
  • Red Herring
  • Straw Man 
  • Begging the Question 
  • Circular Argument
  • Ad Populum
  • Ad Hominem
  • Non Sequitur
  • Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
  • Exordium
  • Narration
  • Proposition
  • Confirmation
  • Refutation
  • Peroration
  • Emphasis

Sample Case Assignment

Dear Teams, 

Trust this finds you well.  

This is to confirm the acceptance of your individual positions and the relevant KBOs. We are excited to see your business developing soon.

At this stage the task will be to arrange a group discussion on the specific areas, targets, directions and strategies of the company. Your team is to meet and discuss those internally. What you will then need is to select a representative who will be sharing your discussion details to the rest of the class. 

  • You need to meet and discuss all the points as above
  • You will select a speaker – a representative – who will prepare a 5 minute description of the various points you discussed and tell to the class how you discussed and agreed (or disagreed) on various points.
  • No need for any slides or presentation.
  • After the representative’s speech, each team member will have 1 minute to comment/add and provide personal opinion on how the team discussed and agreed on various points.
  • Everyone, including the representative should be able to speaking on the criticism the team faced during the discussion – what were the various views and opinions, etc
    • On the topics were criticism was constructive and the team considered it – specify what were the changes in your overall strategy
    • On the topics were criticism was not considered – specify the counter-arguments how the team neutralized the criticism.